The high variety of AI viruses is due to their potential to either mutate (antigenic drift) or to exchange genomic information if one host cell is infected with two different viruses (antigenic shift).
Infections with highly pathogenic influenza can cause up-to 100 % mortality in a few days after infection.
The most predominant clinical signs are:
Nowadays, Real-Time PCR is one of the most important tools in combatting Avian Influenza, as this allows diagnosis in a few hours with further confirmation by reference laboratories within 24 to 48 hours.
But there are many other routes of transmission, like direct and indirect vectors, bird smuggling (e.g. roosters for cock fighting) or live bird markets. Humans are, after introduction via migratory birds, for sure to most considerable source of transmission.
Control of NAI (Notifiable Avian Influenza) includes, for many countries, by the eradication of the virus via stamping out the infected populations.
This is still the most effective way to control the disease but requires a network of diagnostic institutions (which should include private laboratories), readiness to implement the stamping out methods and safe disposal of carcasses.
However, still as of today, none of these vaccines guarantee a “sterile” immunity in the field. In other words, avoiding any multiplication and further spread of the virus.However, still as of today, none of these vaccines guarantee a “sterile” immunity in the field. In other words, avoiding any multiplication and further spread of the virus.
Achieving acceptance of regionalization, but even more with compartmentalization, requires an intensive cooperation between the poultry industry and government authorities.
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